Mendimi filozofik

Alban Daci
Genova, Itali


Aristoteli dhe Politika sipas mendimit të tij filozofik
Politika shqyrton sjelljen e shoqërisë, ndërsa etika atë të individit. Aristoteli i dedikon një libër të plotë politikës. Pikënisje është thënia e famshe e tij “Njeriu kafshë politike”; Nuk janë politikan as zotrat dhe as kafshët, por vetëm njeriu. Cfarë do të thotë kjo thënie? Do të thotë se njeriu si për nga natyra është lidhur me jetë komuniteti me të tjerët si dhe nga forma tipike sociale e Polis ( term nga ku rrjedh fjala politikë). Artistoteli sic e dijmë ka përjetuar raporte të ngushta me Maqedoninë, ku politika e ndjekur nga Aleksandri i madh nuk kishte të bënte fare me mendimin e Artistotelit se: njeriu është i lidhur me polis-in dhe Aleksandri i Madh është që simboli i kësaj lidhje me vet polis-in. Artistoteli parasëgjithash thekson : edhe kafshët jetojnë në shoqëri, por ky është fakt instiktiv: tek ata mungon implikuesi i ashtëquajtur “Konktratualizën”, tezë sipas së cilës Shteti është një kontratë., një mbledhje e bërë në tavolinë nga njerëzit, që janë të vetëdijshëm se e qëndruara së bashku përbën një vantazh. Artistoteli mendon ndryshe: është një sjellje dhe kostum natyror: është e vërtetë që njërëzit rigrupohen edhe për interes, për të pasur vantazhe: askush nuk mund të bëj më të mirën vetëm dhe është më mirë nëse secili specializohet në një aktivitet, por ky nuk është një proces konvencionues, përkundrazi spontan. Artistoteli thekson se fakti i të jetuarit së bashku nuk është i shpjeguar vetëm mbi bazën e nevojave materiale, edhe në rast se njeriu do të kishte gjithcka që do të kishte nevojë dhe do të ishte autonom do të tentonte përsëri për të jetuar së bashku me të tjerët. Është një dëshirë spontane për të qëndruar së bashku. Njeriu tenton pra të agregohet në mënyrë natyrore.: kontratualistët thonin që cdo njeri është një atom në shoqëri. Karakteri natyror për Aristotelin sjell karakterin gradual. Aristoteli shikon tek Polis të vetmin proces agregus të shoqërisë, ku është edhe kulmi i shprehjes dhe relazimit të saj. Familja është shoqëria premordiale e lindur para dhe prandaj ka të drejtat e saja. Kur, Aristoteli flet për familjen e thërret OIKOS (shtëpi): është interesante përse familja është bërthama parësore jo vetëm në planin e efekteve, por edhe në planin ekonomik: ekonomi faktikisht do të thotë rregullimi i OIKOS (Shtëpisë).
Kur, Aristoteli flet për familjen citon katër figura: baba, nënë, femijë dhe skllevër, që zhvillonin aktivitetet e agrikulturës dhe kryenin shërbime për shtëpinë. Edhe në familje formohen raporte të ndryshme autoriteti: babai ka raporte të ndryshme autoriteti mbi gruan, fëmijët dhe skllevërit. Raporti me gruan ( i ngjashëm me modelin aristokratik), me fëmijët ( i ngjashëm me modelin e monarkisë) është i përkoshëm dhe zgjat derisa rriten dhe raporti me skllevërit ( i ngjashëm me modelin e tiranisë) është i përhershëm. Aristoteli thekson se skllavëria është dicka natyrore dhe e nevojshme ( ide e cila vetëm në mesin e dytë të shekullit të kaluar është hedhur poshtë, ku cdo sjellje skllavërore është e dënueshme).
Si e justifikon skllavërinë Aristoteli?
Aristoteli shprehet se: ekzistojnë individ për nga natyra të lirë dhe të tjerët po nga natyra skllevër; argumentimi është bazuar mbi kapacitetin për tu liruar dhe nga aftësia për arsyetuar; Aristoteli thotë që një pjesë e humanizmit ka aftësinë për të vënë në praktikë kapacitet e tija mendore ( kapacitetin e kemi të gjithë, por ka të bëj me kalimin e këtij kapacitetu në akt) dhe një pjesë që nuk është e aftë që nuk din të bëj zgjedhje racionale. Nëse është kështu, Aristoteli thotë se: është mirë jo vetëm për pornarët, por edhe për vet skllevërit të jenë skllevër ( ja vlen të theksohet që skllavëria greke ishte shumë më pak e egër se ajo romane): një person i paftë të vetqeveriset në menyrë autonome mund të mbitoj vetëm duke qenë i qeverisur nga një tjetër. Problemi i vërtetë është që konkretisht nuk shëndrohesh skllav për faktin që nuk jë gjendje për të menduar; shëndrohesh skllav përmes luftërave. Kush humbet bëhet skllav, kush fiton behët pronar ( ligji i pashkruar i luftës).
Rikujtojmë që Platoni vetë rrezikoj të bëhej skllavë, sepse ishte kapur rob nga piratët: sigurisht Platoni përderisa mendonte dhe dinte dicka…Aristoteli kupton, por nuk gjen tjetër rrugëdalje. Aristoteli ka qenë themeluesi i shkencës së ekonomisë: një nga konceptet themelore të tij është koncepti i parasë dhe funksionet e saja.
Për Aristotelin ekzistojnë dy mënyra për të përdorur paranë: njëra legale dhe tjetra jo. Ekonomia është qeverisja e shtëpisë, procesi prokurimit të mirave për të bërë të funksionoj mirë shtëpija. Natyra e parasë dhe thelbi i saj është të jetë mjet shkëmbimi.
Kalojmë në analizën politike.: ndarja mes formës negative të qeverisjes dhe formës së mirë qevërisëse është e dhënë nga fakti kush qeveris qeverisjen për interesin publik ose personal. Monarkia është qeverisja e njërit në shërbim të gjithëve; Tirania , ku njëri , qeveris vetëm për interesin e tij. Një hapërisë të vecantë, Aristoteli, i kushton demokracisë që e quan qeveria e shumicës: kolektiviteti mund të qeverisë në interesin e shumicës ( politeia ) ose të shumicës që qeveris ( demokracia). Politeia është kushtetuta për ekselencë ( sipas Aristotelit); në realitet duhet të bëhet kujdes në faktin që Artistoteli ndan sipas dy kritereve politik: a) numerik: qeverisin shumë, pakica…b) sociologjik: demokracia nuk është vetëm qeverisja e shumicës, por edhe qeverisja e demosi-it (popullit).
Për Aristotelin forma më e mirë qevërisëse është politeia, demokracia positive, kur shumica qeveris mirë. Politeia shikohet sipas një kriteri sasior, por edhe sipas një kriteri social. Aristoteli thotë se të gjithë do të pranonim që të qevëriste vetëm një individ, në rast se ky individ do të kishte më shumë virtyt se sa ne të gjithë së bashku: kjo do të ishte qeverisja më e mirë, por është me të vertetë abstrakte që të jetë e mundshme dhe e realizueshme.

(Gazeta "NDRYSHE",nr.270,dt 4 prill 2007, faqe 2 Gazeta NDRYSHE online)

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