Besimi dhe Politika

Dr. Alban Daci
www.albandaci.blogspot.com

Besimi dhe Politika

Antonio Gramshi ka cituar se: me rënien e besimit fetar (në kuptimin tradicional të fjalës), njerëzit me ankth kërkonin një sistem të ri kredencash me principe të përgjithshme rreth së cilës mund të grupoheshin dhe të gjenin arsyet intime për të jetuar me dinjitet.
U ndërtuan kështu një pafundësi me “kisha” të reja , sipas shtresave të ndryshme shoqërore: disa gjejnë fat në sallone mondane, të tjera mes intelektualëve dhe të tjera tek populli.
Ndërsa Jean-Jacque Rousseau në 1756 arsyeton se:  sapo njerëzit jetojnë në shoqëri kanë nevojë për një besim që ti mbaj. Nuk ka ekzistuar dhe nuk do të ekzistoj asnjëherë një popull pa besim fetar.
 Sipas ti kush nuk beson në një jetë të ardhme është frikacak ose një i çmendur, po është shumë për tu theksuar se në çfarë mase shpresa e jetës së ardhme mund të shtyj një fanatik që të abuzoj me jetën tokësore.
Lirojeni fanatikun nga vizionet e tija dhe jepni atij të njëjtën shpresë si çmim të virtytit dhe keni bërë një qytetar të vërtet.
Me këtë hyrje Rousseau  zhvillon në Kontratën sociale (1762) konceptin e një besimi civil, në të cilën forca shpirtërore është e domosdoshme për bashkimin politik të shtetit të ri kombëtar të mbështetur në sovranitetin e popullit.
Në bazë të këtij koncepti ishte nevoja për të kaluar frakturat e provokuara nga besimi i krishterë, që me institucionet e kishës kishte vendosur mbi tokë “një mbretëri, duke ndarë sistemin teologjik dhe politik”, kishte thyer bashkimin e trupit politik, duke shkaktuar ndarje të brendshme që nuk kanë pushuar së ekzistuari me popujve të krishterë.
I vetmi ilaç i kësaj të keqeje, konfirmonte Rousseau, ishte formula e propozuar nga Thomas Hobbes për të ribashkuar pushtetin shpirtëror dhe pushtetin politik, “ me bashkuar dy kokat e shqiponjës”.
Gjithashtu është e nevojshme, për demokracinë për të formuluar një “ profesion besimi plotësisht civil, ku i përket sovranit të vendos artikujt, jo pikërisht si dogma fetare, por me sentimenta.
Rousseau flet për dogmën pozitive te besimit civil, ku jep lumturi për të mirët dhe ndëshkim për kafshërorët si dhe dogmën negative, që sipas tij është mos toleranca.
Liberali Givani Amendola, antifashist dhe viktimë e dhunës, qw ndoshta ishte ndër të parët që bëri lidhjen mes totalitarizmit dhe besimit politik, ku ndër të tjera citon:
Një parti mund të lakmoj dominimin e jetës publike, por jo të tej kaloj kufijtë e ndërgjegjes private, në të cilën kushdo është i lirë të kërkoj strehë. Fashizmit nuk i mjaftonte vetëm pushteti, por kërkonte dhe ndërgjegjen private të gjithë qytetarëve, donë “bisedën” e gjithë italianëve.
Sipas Amendolës karakteristika me e dukshme e motos fashiste do të mbetet, për ato që do e studiojnë në ardhmen, shpirti “totalitar”, i cili nuk do të lejoj  në të ardhmen që të ketë agime që nuk do jenë të përshëndetura me gjestin roman.
Për besimin fashist fliste W. Shneider,  një studiues amerikan që jeton në Itali mes 1926 dhe 1927. Fashizmi në konkluzionin e tij ishte një “besim i natyrshëm që përdor teknikat e një kulti fetar. Si pasoj Schneider parashikonte tensione dhe konflikte mes Kishës dhe besimit fashist.
 Besimi politik është një formë shenjtërimi e politikës që ka karaktere ekskluzive dhe integraliste; nuk pranon ekzistencën me ideologjitë dhe lëvizjet e tjera, mohon autonominë e njeriut në kolektivitet, shenjtëron dhunën si armë legjitime lufte kundër armiqve, merr kundrejt besimeve tradicional një qëndrim pengues, duke admiruar eliminim, ose kërkon të vendos me ato një raport të bashkëjetesës simbiotike, në kuptim që besimi politik admiron të përziej besimin tradicional pikërisht në sistemin e besimeve e miteve, duke i rezervuar një funksion nënshtrimi ndihmës.
Besimet e politikës janë fenomene moderne. Lindja e tyre presupozon shekullarizimin, modernizimin, afirmimin e autonomisë e dimensionit politik nga besimet tradicionale dhe ndarjen e Shtetit nga Kisha.
Pra, nuk do të thotë se besimi politik nuk ka asnjë lloj lidhje me besimet tradicionale dhe domosdoshmërish nuk sjell situatë antagonizmi dhe konflikti.

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