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Nocioni dhe funksioni sanksioneve penale

Në të drejtën penale, masat të cilat zbatohen ndaj kryersve të veprave penale quhen sanksione penale. Marrë në përgjithësi, masat të cilat janë të parapara në të dr. penale dhe ndërmëerren nga jurisprudenca penale ndaj kryesit të veprës penale, duhet të kenë të vetmin qëllim – mbrojtjen e çdo individi dhe të shoqërisë në përgjithësi nga kriminaliteti. Sanksionet penale janë ndër mjetet që i ndërmerrë shoqëria me qëllim të mbrojtjes nga kriminaliteti. Sanksionet penale kanë për qëllim që të sigurojnë kushtet elementare të jetës së përbashkët. në të kundërtën, nëse zbatimi i sanksioneve penale nuk është në funksion të luftimit të kriminalitetit, por i shërben interesave të ngushta burokratike apo partive politike, gjykatat bëhen vegël e tyre. Atëherë në fushën e së dr. penale, veçmas në fushën e sanksioneve penale shprehet arbitrariteti, deformimet dhe cenimi i sigurisë dhe i barazisë si dhe shkelja e lirive dhe të drejtave të qytetarëve. Sanksionet që parashihen në të dr. penale janë masa shtrenguese që zbatohen me dhunë dhe paraqesin represion ndaj kryesit të veprës penale. Me anë të sanksioneve penale, kryesit të veprës penale i kufizohen apo i merren të drejtat, liritë dhe vlerat tjera shumë të rëndësishme, siç është liria e lëvizjes, pasuria, etj., ndërsa në disa vende ku ende njihet dënimi me vdekje, kryesit i mirret edhe jeta. Në fushën e së dr. penale në përgjithësi dhe të sanksioneve penale në veçanti, si imperativ imponohen këto parime: respektimi i drejtësisë, të postulateve ssociale etike, ligjshmërisë, legjitimitetit, humanizmit, dinjiteti dhe integritetit të njeriut.

NOCIONI - Sanksionet penale janë masa të dhunshme penalo-juridike të cilat i shqipton gjykata në procedurën e përcaktuar në ligj ndaj kryesit të veprës penale, me qëllim të mbrojtjes së shoqërisë dhe individit nga kriminaliteti, ndërsa konsistojnë në marrjen apo kufizimin e lirive dhe të drejtave të caktuara apo në terheqjen e vërejtjes kryesit se do ti merren apo kufizohen liritë apo të drejtat nëse sërish kryen vepër penale.

Karakteristikat themelore të sanksioneve penale – Janë: a) me anë të sanksioneve penale shoqëria mbron nga kriminaliteti vlerat më të rëndësishme të individit dhe të bashkësisë shoqërore; b) sanksionet penale mund tu shqiptohen vetëm kryersve të veprave penale; c) ndaj kryersve të veprave penale mund të shqiptohet vetëm ai sanksion penal i cili është paraparë me ligj në momentin e kryerjes se veprës penale (parimi i legalitetit); ç) sanksionet penale mund ti shqiptojë vetëm gjykata në bazë të procedurës së përcaktuar me ligj; d) me anë të sanksioneve penale, kryersve të veprave penale u merren apo u kufizohen liritë dhe të drejtat e tyre.

Llojet e sanksioneve penale në përgjithësi – Njihen disa lloje të sanksioneve penale: dënimet kryesore, dënimet alternative, dënimet plotësuese, masat siguruese, masat edukative, dënimi me kusht dhe vërejtja gjyqësore.

Llojet sipas sistemit tonë penal – Janë: 1. Dënimet kryesore, 2. Dënimet alternative, 3. Dënimet plotësuese, dhe 4. Vërejtja gjyqësore.

Dënimet kryesore – Shqiptohen ndaj personave madhorë, të cilët janë penalishttë përgjegjshëm për veprën penale të kryer, dmth., personi duhet të jetë psikikisht i shëndoshë dhe që veprën penale ta këtë kryer me fajin e tij (me dashje apo nga pakujdesia). Për nga natyra dhe brendia e tyre, në tërë sistemin e sanksioneve penale dënimet kryesore janë qortim social-etik të intensitetit të lartë, me të cilat kryesit të veprës penale i meeren apo i kufizohen liritë dhe të drejtat e rëndësishme.

Dënimet alternative – Në brendinë e tyre janë substitute, zëvendësim i dënimit me burgim. Kryesi i veprës penale në vend që të dënohet me burgim nga ana e gjykatës, atij i terhiqet vërejtja dhe njëherit i caktohen obligime të cilat duhet ti përmbushë brenda afatit të caktuar nga gjykata. Dënimet alternative mund të revokohen dhe të shndërrohen në dënim me burgim.

Dënimet plotësuese – Janë të karakterit sekondar dhe i plotësojnë dënimet kryesore. Sipas kodit penal, këto dënime gjithherë mund të shqiptohen vetëm së bashku me dënimin kryesor. Në rastet kur gjykata konstaton se vetëm me shqiptimin e dënimit kryesor nuk mund të arrihet qëllimi i dënimit, do ta shqiptojë edhe njërin nga dënimet plotësuese. Gjer me hyrjen në fuqi të kodit penal të Kosovës, shumica dërrmuese e dënimeve plotësuese, që parashihen me kodin penal, janë konsideruar si masa siguruese.

Vërejtja e gjykatës – Si lloj i sanksionit penal, në brendinë e saj është e karakterit parapenal. Është e paraparë për llojet e lehta të veprave penale. Me këtë lloj të sanksionit penale kryesit të veprës penale gjykata ia terheq vërejtjen dhe e qorton dhe njëherit ja bën me dije se nëse sërish kryen vepër penale, do ti shqiptohet lloji i sanksionit penal më të rëndë. Vërejtja e gjykatës shqiptohet me vendim të gjykatës.

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